April 10, 2018 at 6:54 pm #86083
In the review of Carla Zetkin's book Fighting Fascism Cesco gives the impression that it was purely a conspiracy by the agrarian and industrial bourgeoisie that gave rise to Italian Fascism. The idea that it was also partly made possible by the failures of Italian capitalism (unemployment, national dept and militant labour unrest) were given no significance. Considering that the 'blackshirts' who made the Fascist revolution were mainly unemployed ex soldiers from the first world war it seems impossible to discount the failure of capitalism as one of its root causes (as in Nazi Germany). In the haste to discredit the 'Third International' perhaps the 'baby has been thrown out with the bathwater' in this particular review?April 13, 2018 at 8:16 am #132612
************************************************************What was fascism?What was fascism? By Dave Renton. Pluto Press.Fascism was basically an extreme form that nationalism took in Italy and Germany, for reasons specific to the particular history of these capitalist states, in the period between the 20th century's two world wars.Fascism originated in Italy in 1919 in Italy when Mussolini set up the fascisti di combattimento, so called after units of the Roman army. Later the word was used in relation to a similar extreme nationalist movement in Germany even though this described itself as "national-socialist" (Nazi) rather than fascist. Both these movements won control of political power more or less constitutionally, in Italy in 1922 and in Germany in 1933, and proceeded to establish a one-party dictatorship with mass organisations to embrigade the population and preaching that all members of the "nation" had a common interest. Fascism/Nazism was implacably opposed to Marxism for its internationalism and its advocacy of the class struggle within nations.Analysing this new phenomenon, which represented political regression compared with how Marx and Marxists until the first world war had seen things developing (political democracy, then socialism), was a challenge to those who called themselves Marxists. It is how they met this challenge that Renton's book describes. Well-written and easy-to-read it suffers from the defect that its author is an SWP member who sees Trotsky as a brilliant political thinker. But Trotsky was disqualified from usefully contributing to the debate since, although he wasn't a racist, he too favoured a one-party dictatorship.The SWP makes campaigning against the fascist grouplets that exist today one of its top priorities but since fascism is only an extreme development of nationalism they ought also to campaign against nationalism. Only they don't; they support the so-called "right of nations to self-determination", a doctrine which accepts the myth that "nations"—and so "aliens"—exist and so provides ideological ammunition to justify "ethnic cleansing" of members of other "nations" living on a "nation's" territory.ALhttps://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/135772/Fascism_-_theory_and_practice.pdfApril 13, 2018 at 8:39 am #132613
Here's what the Socialist Standard said at the time:http://www.worldsocialism.org/spgb/socialist-standard/1920s/1923/no-224-april-1923/socialism-and-fascistiMay 12, 2018 at 9:51 pm #132614
If interested here you can find a point counterpoint to the book review.Please scroll down to the bottom. Btw with Carla I meant Clara. Sorry for the typos.https://johnriddell.wordpress.com/2017/12/05/clara-zetkin-and-the-struggle-against-fascism/May 15, 2018 at 4:28 pm #132615
None at the Third International, or the Fourth International did not have morality to oppose Nazism when they supported the dictatorship of one party rule, nationalism, and the so called patriotics wars of the nations
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